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Guide:IPA

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Contents

Consonant charts

Pulmonic consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m̥ m ɱ n̥ n ɳ ɲ̥ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ
Plosive p b p̪ b̪ t̪ d̪ t d t̠ d̠ ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Affricate p͡ɸ b͡β p̪͡f b̪͡v t̪͡θ d̪͡ð t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʈ͡ʂ ɖ͡ʐ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ c͡ç ɟ͡ʝ k͡x g͡ɣ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z
θ̠ ð̠
ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Approximant β̞ ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Trill ʙ  r ɽ͡r ʀ я
Flap or tap ⱱ̟ ɾ ɽ ɢ̆ ʡ̯
Lateral fric. ɬ ɮ ɭ˔̊ ʎ̥˔ ʟ̝̊ ʟ̝
Lateral app. l ɭ ʎ ʟ
Lateral flap ɺ ɺ̠ ʎ̯

Non-pulmonic consonants

Ejectives

Ejective consonants are marked in the IPA with an apostrophe. Voiced ejectives are thought by many to be impossible for humans to produce.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Plosive p' t' ʈ' c' k' q'
Affricate p͡ɸ' p̪͡f' t͡ʃ' ʈ͡ʂ' t͡ɕ' c͡ç' k͡x'
Fricative ɸ' f' θ' s' ʃ' ʂ' ɕ' ç' x' χ'

Vowel chart

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u
Near-close ɪ ʏ ɪ̈ ʊ̈ ʊ
Close-mid e ø ɘ ɵ ɤ o
Mid e̞ ø̞ ə ɤ̞ o̞
Open-mid ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ
Near-open æ ɐ
Open a ɶ ä ɑ ɒ

Here is another version of the vowel chart:

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
• ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
e̞ • ø̞
ə
ɤ̞ • o̞
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ •
ɐ
a • ɶ
ä
ɑ • ɒ
Near‑close
Close‑mid
Mid
Open‑mid
Near‑open
Open
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